The main difficulties encountered by the shrimp farming community are essentially of the zoosanitary type (diseases affecting animals, but not the consumer). The development of viral (and to a lesser extent bacterial) types of epizooty which have spread throughout the majority of the production areas has provoked large drops in production since 1990.
Moreover, the anarchic development of the farming areas in certain countries has had negative consequences on the environment (destruction of mangroves for example).
So as to correct the situation, the countries concerned have taken measures including prophylaxis and control and have developed new farming techniques and strategies.
Other countries, such as Madagascar and New Caledonia, have aimed at establishing a sustainable aquaculture by protecting the mangrove, and by limiting farming density.
The third challenge of the sector concerns the quality of the product. It is this quality aspect which the New Caledonian industry is aiming at so as to enable its production to face up to world competition. Control throughout the production cycle, traceability and strict health monitoring are the main components.
Among the other species, certain crabs such as the mangrove crab (Scylla serrata) and several species of spiny lobster have an interesting farming potential.